Iregular verbs – present perfect tense

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Adding ge- + -en to the stem
The past participle of most irregular verbs are formed by putting ge- in front of the stem and -en at the end:

lesen → les ge + les + en read
sehen → seh ge + seh + en seen
waschen → wasch ge + wasch + en washed

Stem vowel change
Many irregular verbs have a stem vowel change:

finden → gefunden found
helfen→ geholfen helped
schreiben→ geschrieben written
fliegen→ geflogen flown

Note that many German irregular verbs tend to be irregular in English. A good way to learn irregular verb forms is to work with a list of verbs, which you can find at the end of this book and in most dictionaries.

Mixed verbs – stem vowel change, but ending in -t
There are verbs called mixed verbs which combine the characteristics of regular and irregular verbs as they change their stem vowel and add -t when forming the past participle. Here are some examples:
brennen → gebrannt burned
bringen → gebracht brought
denken → gedacht thought
kennen → gekannt known
nennen → genannt named
wissen → gewusst known