What are pronouns?

Pronouns are words that ‘stand in’ for nouns and refer to persons, things or ideas. The most important ones are the personal pronouns (ich, du, er/sie/es etc.): Georg ist noch klein, aber er kann schon lesen. Georg is only small but he can already read. Mir gefällt das Auto, aber es ist zu teuer. I like the car, but it is too expensive. Personal and other pronouns Apart from personal pronouns ther... »

Personal pronouns

Personal pronouns can replace and refer to any kind of noun or noun phrase. They need to agree with the grammatical role of these nouns. This is often indicated by different forms of the pronoun. Here is an overview of personal pronouns in the nominative, accusative and dative case: Personal pronouns in use The following section shows the usage and different functions of personal pronouns in a sen... »

Demonstrative pronouns – dieser, der

Demonstrative pronouns refer to specific persons, things or ideas that usually have been mentioned before. There are two types of demonstrative pronouns which are quite similar in meaning: dieser, diese etc. and der, die etc.: Siehst du die rote Jacke? → Meinst du diese/die? Do you see the red jacket?→ Do you mean this one? These pronouns have to agree in gender, number and case with the noun they... »

Indefinite pronouns – man, alle, viele

Indefinite pronouns refer to persons, things or ideas that are not closely identified. The most commonly used indefinite pronoun is man. Referring to people in a general sense – man The pronoun man ‘one’ is used to refer to people/they or you in a general sense. It is mainly used in the nominative, as the subject of a sentence or clause: Man tut das nicht. You don’t do that./One does not do that. ... »

Possessive pronouns

Possessives, indicating ownership, can also function as pronouns: Ist das Ihr Buch? → Ja, das ist meins. Habt ihr eure Joggingschuhe mit? → Ja, wir haben unsere mit. Possessive pronouns have to agree in gender, number and case with the noun they refer to. As an example here are all forms of meiner ‘mine’: The above endings are also added to the basic forms of all other possessives dein-, Ihr-, sei... »

Verbs with a dative object

Many verbs that require a dative object can be used with a dative reflexive pronoun if the action focuses on the subject itself: With a dative object → Reflexive Ich werde dem Kind helfen. → Ich werde mir selbst helfen. I will help the child.→ I will help myself. Du schadest der Umwelt. → Damit schadest du dir. You are harming the environment → You are harming yourself with that. Other verbs belon... »